James McClintock and Pioneer
Early in the American Civil War (1861-1865), the Confederate government authorized citizens to operate armed warships as `privateers.` A New Orleans consortium headed by cotton broker H.L. Hunley gained approval for the operation of Pioneer, a 34-foot-long submarine designed and built by James McClintock. The boat held three persons, one to steer and two to crank the propeller.

In a March 1862 demonstration on Louisiana`s Lake Pontchartrain, a submerged Pioneer sank a barge with a towed floating torpedo. In April 1862, the US Navy captured New Orleans, and its builders scuttled Pioneer. Soon discovered, the boat was sold for scrap in 1868.

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