Soviet`s Yankee class, Project 667A, Cold War SSBN’s
The Yankee class is the general NATO classification for a type of nuclear-powered submarine that was originally constructed by the Soviet Union from 1968 onward. In the USSR, they were produced under Project 667. The 24 built at Severodvinsk, shipyard no. 402 for the Northern Fleet were known as the Navaga class, while the remaining 10 built in shipyard no. 199, Komsomolsk-na-Amur for the Pacific Fleet were the Nalim class.
The Yankees were the first class of Soviet subs to have comparable ballistic missile firepower to their American counterparts. Yankee subs were quieter than their Hotel-class predecessors and had smoother lines that improved their submerged performance. The ships were armed with 16 ballistic missiles during the Cold War, and served in the Soviet front lines: in the 1970s up to three Yankees were continually stationed in a "patrol box" east of Bermuda. Their forward deployment was seen as a balance against the presence of American and NATO nuclear weapons in Western Europe.
As a result of the SALT- I (1991, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) and START- I/II treaties (1993, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty), all boats of the Yankee-class have been gradually decommissioned, convertad and/or disarmed.
In 1958 OKB-18 (Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering) started the development of a new ballistic missile submarine. Initially work was undertaken on two versions, A.S. Kassatsiyer, the author of both versions was designated as chief designer. The development of the submarine faced significant problems regarding the launch system. During elimination of the problems the project underwent fundamental changes and as a result the completely new submarine design received the new designation 667A. The new chief designer was S.I. Kovalev. The revised 667A submarine was both developed and authorized in 1962.
The external contours of the submarine were designed to achieve minimal resistance when operating under water. Unlike previous submarines, the horizontal hydroplanes were arranged on the sail. The Yankee is a double hulled design; the cylinder-shaped pressure hull is divided into 10 compartments and has an exterior diameter of 9.4m’. The first of the class was laid down in 1963-64 and delivered late 1967, the last one completed in 1974.
There were seven different versions of the Yankee subs:
Yankee I (Project 667A):
The baseline configuration, these were ballistic missile submarines that first saw service in 1968; 34 were built. The subs carried 16 SS-N-6 missiles, had 6 torpedo tubes, and carried 18 Type 53 torpedoes. They were the first Soviet SSBNs to carry their ballistic missiles within the hull (as opposed to the sail).
Yankee II (Project 667AM/Navaga M-class):
A single-ship class, this was a Yankee I submarine (K-140) converted to carry 12 SS-N-17 missiles, which was the Red Fleet`s first solid-fuelled SLBM.
Yankee Notch (Project 667AT/Grosha-class):
This conversion subs were attack submarines (SSNs) that first appeared in 1983; six Yankee I boats were rebuilt to this configuration. They incorporated a "notch waisted" center section, which replaced the old ballistic missile compartment, featuring eight 533 mm (21-inch) torpedo tubes for up to 40 SS-N-21 missiles or additional torpedoes. The forward torpedo tubes were retained as well, with some reports suggesting that the vessels may have also been able to fire 650mm (25.5-inch) Type 65 torpedoes. The conversion increased the overall length by 12m’ (39.4 feet) to 141.5m’ (464.2 feet), with a displacement of up to 11,500 tons submerged.
Yankee Sidecar (Project 667AM/Andromeda-class):
Also known as Yankee SSGN, this was another single-ship (in this case K-420) class, converted into an SSGN. It appeared in 1983, carrying 12 SS-NX-24 nuclear-tipped cruise missiles instead of the original ballistic missiles. The SS-NX-24 was an experimental cruise missile, with a supersonic flight regime and twin nuclear warheads. In the end, the missile was not adopted, and the K-420 became a weapon system without a weapon. It was fully 13,650 tons displacement (dived), and was even longer than the Yankee Notch to accommodate the massive cruise missiles; it was 153m’ (501.8 feet) long overall.
Yankee SSN 16 of this type were converted from the basic Yankee I specification. Some were not completely converted, although they cannot carry ballistic missiles, so they were called Yankee SSNX. They retained only their forward torpedo tubes, with the central missile sections having been removed.
Yankee Pod (Project 09774):
The Yankee Pod (also known as the Yankee SSAN is a converted trials submarine for sonar equipment, with the namesake pod mounted atop the rudder.
Yankee Stretch (Project 09780):
K-411, the Yankee Stretch conversion, is a "mother ship" for Paltus class mini submarines. It is fully 160m’ (525 feet) in length, making it the largest of the Yankee conversions. Like the Yankee Pod, it lacked missile armament. Its mission was believed to be a combination of oceanographic research, search and rescue, and underwater intelligence-gathering.
Specifications, Yankee I class, Project 667A, Navaga/Nalim:
Displacement (srf/sub tons): 7,760/9,300
Dimensions (L*B*D feet/meter): 422’6*38’4*28’6/129.8*11.7*8.7
Propulsion: 2*77.5MWt VM-4 Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor (PWR), 2* OK-700 geared steam turbines 26,000hp, 2 shafts
Speed (srf/sub knots): 12-14/24-27
Range (srf/sub miles@knots): not relevant
Diving depth (feet/meter): 1,250-1,312/380- 400
Complement: 120 officers and crew
Missile: SLBMs- D-5 launch tubes for 16*R-27 (US/NATO-SS-N-6 Serb)
Mod 1: range 1,300 n/miles, warhead nuclear 1000kT, Mod 2: range 1,620 n/miles, warhead nuclear 2 MIRV each 500kT
Torpedo: 4*21" (533mm) bow torpedo tubes with a total of 16 type 53 torpedoes or missiles, 2*16" (400mm) bow torpedo tubes with a total of 6 torpedoes
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||SSBN Yankee class & SSN Victor I class, 28 Feb` 2006, cancellation Murmansk
||Nuclear submarine SSBN Yankee class, Project 667A (1967) (sheet of 14 stamps)
||Nuclear submarine SSBN Yankee class, Project 667A (1967)
||Yankee II class (Soviet Balistic Missile Submarine, SSBN, Project 667AM, 1967)