Pakistani Navy Submarine Fleet

Even though the Indo-Pakistan War of December 1971 was primarily fought on land, the navies of the two countries played an important role in the conflict. A Pakistani submarine (a French-made Daphne class) was able to torpedo an Indian frigate (INS Khukri) scoring the first success of a diesel boat since the Second World War. During the same operations, PNS Ghazi, an elderly former U.S. Tench class submarine was sunk by the Indian escorts, aided by Constellation aircraft used as temporary maritime patrol aircraft.

Until 1972, the Pakistani navy was mainly composed of old, former British ships, plus some former US minesweepers and auxiliaries. However, the most important element of the fleet was composed of French-made submarines of the Daphne class; these had been commissioned in 1970. In 1975 a fourth Daphne was procured from Portugal; two Agosta class submarines purchased from France in mid 1978 arrived in 1979-80; originally built for the South African navy but were snapped up by Pakistan, when the UN embargo prevented delivery. There are also four Italian-built SX-756 class midget submarines, delivered in 1988.

At the beginning of the 90s the Daphne class boats were approaching the end of their useful lives, and the competition to replace them has been fierce; the finalists reportedly being designs from China, France and Sweden, joined at the last minute by an unsolicited offer of the four redundant Upholder class boats from the UK. The result, however, was a victory for France`s DCN International with the order for three Agosta 90Bs.

Pakistan Navy required a design which would be thoroughly modern, but which will also combine tactical effectiveness with both low purchase cost and low cost of ownership. The Pakistan Navy found the Agosta 90B very attractive, since they are familiar with the design and still have a large amount of spares for the original Agosta class boats, so an order for the Agosta 90B enables them to reduce capital expenditure and devote more money to the submarine systems. The first of the class, PNS Khalid was delivered to the Pakistan Navy in 2001.

PNS Ghazi, US Tench class ex USS Diablo, SS-479
Keel laid at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine on August 11, 1944, launched December 1, 1944, commissioned March 31, 1945
, decommissioned from U.S. navy June 1, 1964 and sold to Pakistan. Served as Ghaziand was lost with all hand in 1971.

Hangor class, PNS Hangor, S-131, French Daphne class
Keel laid at Arsenal De Brest, France on December 1, 1967, launched June 28, 1969, commissioned January 12, 1970. Missiles capability was added in 1985, Mc Donnell Douglas Sub Harpoon 

Hashmat class, PNS Hashmat, S-135, French Agosta class
Keel laid at Dubigeon Normandie, Nantes, France on September 15, 1976, launched December 14, 1977, commissioned February 17, 1979. Modified to fire Mc Donnell Douglas`s Sub Harpoonin 1985.

Image Country Year Description
Pakistan 1968 Submarine Ghazi (ex Diablo SS-479)
Pakistan 1989 SSK Hashmat S-135,Hashmat class (Agosta type)
Pakistan 1989 SSK Hangor S-131,Hangor class (Daphne type)
Pakistan 1989 Fleet snorkel class
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